Theory of Change
In the UBR2 programme, the Alliance will continue the conceptual thinking (or Theory of Change) that formed the basis for the SRHR Alliance Unite for Body Rights (UFBR) programme under MFSII. In order to realise SRHR for all young people, programmes need to address the capacity of the individual (through gender-sensitive SRHR education, information and skills building), improve the availability, accessibility and quality of SRH services for young women and young men and create an enabling environment (through working with communities and advocating towards relevant stakeholders).
The combined research, context analyses and experiences of the 5 SRHR Alliance members in
Bangladesh and the 2 Dutch SRHR Alliance members leads us to conclude that in order to sustainably improve young people’s SRH in Bangladesh, enhanced efforts are needed to build young people’s individual capacity to make safe choices; to make SRH services better adapted to young people’s individual needs; and to strengthen the linkages between information and service provision. Having access to SRHR information and life skills training, is essential to ensure young people are able to make informed decisions regarding their SRHR. This information needs to be comprehensive and shared by trained teachers that have the skills and feel comfortable discussing sexuality with young people. A main focus of the UBR programme is therefore to train teachers on the implementation of sexuality education as part of the National Curriculum or, when schools are less conservative, using the UBR curriculum called Me and My World. To ensure sustainable access to information, the SRHR Alliance seeks to integrate comprehensive sexuality education within Teacher Training Curriculum of the National Curriculum Textbook Board. Having access to quality Youth Friendly Services is crucial to increase young people’s SRH. However, access to SRH services in Bangladesh is hindered by problems at the supply side (the availability, affordability and quality of YF SRH services and commodities), influenced by the socio-cultural and political context. UBR approach to increase access to YF SRH services is twofold: the partners of the SRHR Alliance provide YF SRHR services through trained staff in their clinics and hospitals (1) and Government health workers are trained to increase the youth-friendliness of their services according to the National Standards (2). To sustain this approach, UBR advocates for integration of this training in the Training of Government health workers.
In addition, the UBR2 programme will have an increased focus on creating an enabling environment in order to sustain our interventions. The past 5 years of programme intervention has shown that teaching young people about condom use, where to get them, and making condoms available to them, does not result in the desired behaviour change if their parents, teachers or other gatekeepers do not allow them to access or use them. The focus will t ensure gatekeepers such as parents and teachers support and understand the programme and the UBR messages. The desired outcome is that gatekeepers support young people to make informed decisions on their sexual and reproductive health and that they respect their rights. In addition, schools, health clinics and community leaders will be increasingly included in the programme as they can play an important role in the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme.
The picture below illustrates how the three pillars 1) SRHR education, 2) SRHR services and 3) supportive environment link with each other.
Four fundamental approaches that are essential to realise sustainable change shape our ToC. First, we take a Rights-based Approach to defend and advance young people’s SRHR.82
Second, inclusiveness is fundamental to make choices and opportunities available to all young people, regardless of gender, sexual orientation, HIV-status, religion, disability or poverty. We systematically integrate HIV and AIDS as an intrinsic component of SRHR.83 To be truly inclusive, we ensure Meaningful Youth Participation (MYP). Young people are structurally engaged as equal partners and leaders at all levels to meet their needs and make their voices heard. Finally, we use a gender transformative approach to address gender inequalities,84 challenging partners and stakeholders to reflect on gender norms and values, involve men and ensure gender mainstreaming in all interventions.